51% Attack

With a 51 percent attack, a potential attacker manipulates a blockchain - or block - by combining the majority (>51%) of the computing power in a network.

Access to Account (XS2A)

Access to Account (XS2A) refers to the ability of a financial institution to implement special online banking services via corresponding APIs.


Airdrop involves distributing additional units of a digital asset (e.g., a cryptocurrency or token) to holders - or the public - for free.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regulations are designed to prevent financial fraud.

Application Programming Interface (API)

APIs are programming interfaces that provide a link to other software programs and facilitate the swift exchange of information. In short, programs/applications can access functions of external applications or companies via APIs.

Asset Management

Asset management is the professional creation and management of financial portfolios by asset managers.

Atomic Swap

Atomic swap describes a cross-blockchain P2P transaction between two independent parties in which they exchange two different crypto assets (usually cryptocurrencies) directly with each other without involving intermediaries.

Banking as a Service BAAS)

In BaaS, individual banking functions are detached (unbundling) and made available to third parties. The users include FinTechs and other banks as well as other branches/subsidiaries of the bank itself.

Beacon Technology

Beacon technology allows for contactless data exchange via Bluetooth.

Big Data

Big Data refers to vast amounts of data that are too large, too complex, too weakly structured and/or too short-lived to be processed and evaluated using conventional or manual methods.

Bionic Advisory

Bionic Advisory is a type of financial advisory and wealth management that has been gaining popularity in Asia and North America for several years. It relies on hybrid advisory approaches, next-gen technologies and evolutionary algorithms

Bitcoin Transaction

In a Bitcoin transaction, Bitcoin values are transferred from one wallet to another. The transfer is secured by digital signatures and is stored in the Bitcoin network (blockchain), where it is transparently visible to all users (and remains visible


The blockchain is a decentralized database network in which information is stored in a secure and transparent environment.

Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin)

The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, BaFin) is a financial market supervisory authority that supervises and controls all areas of finance in Germany, including banks, financial service provider

Cryptocurrency (Currency Token)

Cryptocurrencies (also currency tokens) are encrypted digital currencies such as Bitcoind or Litecoin.

Digital Asset

Digital assets comprise digital representations of values that are accepted by individuals or legal entities as a means of exchange or payment, and/or serve investment purposes. Digital assets can be transferred, stored and traded electronically – e.

Digital Securities

Digital securities, also known as Security Token are blockchain-based representations of a security.


The e-wallet provides a digital overview of all finances and account transactions.


E-money (electronic money) is the digital equivalent of cash and co.

ERC-20-Token (Smart Contracts)

ERC-20 tokens (also known as smart contracts) are standardized/unified tokens based on the Ethereum platform.

ERC-721-Token (NFT)

ERC-721 tokens are non-fungible tokens (NFT) based on Ethereum.


ESG refers to environmental, social and governance practices of businesses and describes a standard for sustainable investments. Most sustainability ratings are based on the analysis, evaluation and weighting of these ESG criteria.


FinTech stands for Financial Technology, representing any technology for financial services for more efficient solutions to improve financial efficiency.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

ICOs are primarily used to release new cryptocurrencies onto the market and to realize initial corporate financing. Increasingly, ICOs are also being used to finance projects.

Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)

Scamming ICOs have tarnished the reputation of blockchain investing. To mitigate the risk, a new form of ICOs has emerged, known as Initial Exchange Offering (IEO).


InsurTech stands for Insurance and Technology. It refers both to digital technology solutions for insurance services and to their providers (often start-ups).


A miner is a computer or group of computers that verify blocks from other miners on theBitcoin network.

Mining Pool

In a mining pool, several entities join together to "mine" a cryptocurrency.

Mining Reward

The mining reward is the remuneration received by miners.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

Non-fungible tokens (NFT) are unique crypto tokens; they cannot be multiplied arbitrarily.

Open Banking

Open banking, a secure data sharing to innovate the industry.

Open Source

Open source means that the source code of a software is publicly accessible (online) for everyone.

Payment Token

As the name suggests, payment tokens are classic cryptocurrencies that can be used as a means of payment.

Personal Token

Personal tokens (also known as social tokens) are a special form of token that allow for investors to share in the issuer's (personal) earnings.

Privacy Coin

Privacy coins are cryptocurrencies (or cryptocurrency projects) designed to ensure anonymous transactions.

Private Banking

Private banking consists of the personal service provided by a financial institution to a wealthy client.

Robo Advisory

Robo Advisory refers to semi- or fully automated financial services (investment advice and/or management) by considering the customer-specific risk and requirement profiles.

Security Token

A security token (also "equity token" or "investment token") is a cryptographic token that is tied to a value or security.

Security Token Offering

A security token offering (STO) describes a public offering of security tokens - i.e. of values, rights or debt relationships (=securities) that are mapped via digital assets.

Smart Contract

Smart contracts are computer protocols which are linked to tokens.

Stable Coin

Stable coins are cryptocurrencies that digitally represent a stable (underlying) value and guarantee value parity.


Tokens can be described as digital units of value representing specific assets or utilities that rely on existing blockchain technology.

Two-factor Security Token

A two-factor security token grants access to a sensitive network system - e.g., a bank account.

Utility Token

Utility tokens provide access to a product/service and/or represent the right to use a product/service or function of a project.


Virtual Stock Option Plan (VESOP) gives every employee the benefit to be a shareholder of a company without an actual ownership rights structure between employer and employees.

Wealth Management

Wealth management is the provision of long-term professional investment advice and asset management services to high net worth individuals.

§ 32 KWG

Professional financial advisory and asset management services can be classified into two categories: According to the so-called financial investment broker license (licensing according to § 34f German Trade Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung, GewO)) or a

§ 34 D/F/H GewO

Professional financial advisory and asset management services can be classified into two categories: According to the so-called financial investment broker license (licensing according to § 34f German Trade Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung, GewO))